Do you have questions about reception technology? IP? Optical Network Technology?

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19 inch base units

To ensure maximum operational reliability, the base units of the U-100 series can be equipped with redundant power supply. In addition, each U 100 base unit can accommodate up to three different signal processing modules.

A

AGC

Automatic Gain Control guarantees a constant RF output power within a predefined range for the optical input signal strength. If the optical signal level at the input is within the AGC range, the RF output signal remains stable.

Amplifier

The following characteristics are decisive for the optimal choice of an amplifier: Transmission range: To make broadband networks future-proof, only components with a transmission range of at least 862 MHz, but better 1006 MHz, should be used. ASTRO already offers almost exclusively components with a transmission range of 1006 MHz. Operating level: Which operating level is required for a distribution system depends on the distribution loss of the following network within a building. Furthermore, the minimum level required at the junction boxes plays a decisive role.
Gain in advance: The required gain depends on the signal level of the house transfer point (HÜP). The operating level of the system must also be taken into account (see above). Number of residential units: The appropriate design of the amplifier power depends on the number of housing units to be supplied in a building

Amplifier accessories

Accessories include pads for all types as well as modular return path amplifiers, diplex filters, taps and splitters for the modular broadband amplifiers. Furthermore ASTRO offers a wide range of junction boxes for different applications and distribution structures. Many types of junction boxes are Made in Germany and convince by proven quality features. Each junction box is tested and selected with regard to compliance with the technical data specifications. In addition, the current series offers increased resistance to interference signals from mobile radio (LTE).

Attenuation values

Due to the circuit technology, there is a signal level loss for the respective component (box, distributor or branching) between input and output, or between input and branching. This is indicated in the unit "dB".

C

Cable

When selecting the cables, pay attention to the cable attenuation and the shielding dimension. The cable attenuation determines how far the signal can be propagated without an additional amplifier when the signal level is still sufficient. Another important criterion is the shielding dimension. It determines how strongly the signal is affected by external interference, but also at what level the signal leaves the cable. A triple-shielded cable such as the CSA 9511 A offers optimum parameters for attenuation and shielding effectiveness. Special attention must be paid to the installation of the antenna cable. It is essential to ensure that the cable is not subjected to excessive tensile stress or crushed. The minimum bending radius must not be undercut, as the change in physical properties has a negative influence on the signal.

CA

Conditional access: access to an encrypted programme offering linked to a condition (access only for authorised users)

CAM

Conditional Access Module: Manages the key exchange between SmartCard and the actual decoder hardware

CAS

Conditional Access System: conditional access system for pay television

CI

Common Interface: general interface of DVB receivers for a CA module

Cable attenuation

When selecting the cables, pay attention to the cable attenuation and the shielding dimension. The cable attenuation determines how far the satellite signal can be propagated without an additional amplifier when the signal level is still sufficient. Another important criterion is the shielding capacity. It determines how strongly the signal is affected by external interference, but also at what level the signal leaves the cable. A triple-shielded cable such as the CSA 9511 A offers optimum parameters for attenuation and shielding effectiveness.

Calibration

Measure the outdoor unit with suitable equipment. A poorly aligned antenna can reduce the system reserve (e.g. bad weather reserve) and thus the advantage of good technical components can no longer be used.

Cascading of compact headends (QAM BOXES)

Yes, several devices can be cascaded. The maximum number of cascadable devices is limited by the 8 MHz channels available in the channel raster. Therefore up to four devices can be cascaded which generate a total of 64 QAM channels.

Class A

If interference between TV cable networks and radio services is to be avoided, the use of devices with sufficient shielding is mandatory. Since the conditions in the individual European countries are different, the classification of the shielding was defined in the European standard EN 50083-2 in two graded classes: the higher class A and class B with lower shielding values.

Coaxial cable (the structure)

Inner conductor: The larger the diameter, the lower the attenuation.
Dielectric: For CSA 9511 A, is made of gas-foamed polyethylene. PE is a waterproof and UV-resistant material.
First foil: Serves as a shielding foil and is therefore an essential component that contributes to the high shielding effectiveness of the cable.
Braiding: Serves as both shielding and ground connection of the power supply.
Second foil: Prevents moisture from penetrating into the cable (triple shielding for the CSA 9511 A).
Jacket: Protection against external influences such as sunlight, heat and rain. Cables with a PVC sheath are suitable for indoor use and have very good processing and laying properties. The jacket of the CSA 9511 AHF is halogen-free and therefore flame-retardant.

COFM

Coded Orthogonal Frequency Multiplex: Frequency multiplex method; special implementation of multicarrier modulation

Compact head ends with QAM output

With the QAM BOX ASTRO offers you a compact DVB-S in QAM headend solution with an outstanding price/performance ratio, low power consumption and excellent output parameters - ideally suited for use in small to medium-sized residential units such as multi-family homes, hotels and retirement homes. You can provide up to 160 programs via 16 transponders (12 transponders for the QAM BOX neo types). The small dimensions simplify installation and also allow storage space to be optimized.

Compact headends with DVB-T output

The DVB-T BOX is a compact and powerful solution for all those applications in which the terrestrial DVB-T signal has been used to supply TV receivers with integrated DVB-T tuner. After switching over to the terrestrial DVB-T2, the DVB-T BOX is an ideal and cost-effective solution for continuing to use existing TV sets. With a DVB-T BOX, it is possible to receive previously terrestrially distributed TV programmes via satellite and feed them into distribution systems, such as in hotels or retirement homes.

Connectors

Care must also be taken when installing the connectors. If only a single core of the braided shield touches the inner conductor, this core causes a short circuit and thus a disturbance of the entire system. The connectors are a frequent source of faults in multi-switch systems. Here ASTRO expressly recommends the use of compression connectors. Only these plugs guarantee optimum shielding and protection against moisture penetration.eit.

CWDM

Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing; up to 18 different wavelengths can be multiplexed on a single fiber using a CWDM filter Wavelengths range from 1270 nm to 1610 nm (channel 1 to channel 18) at 20 nm intervals. The average wavelength is equal to the nominal value +1 nm (for 1270 nm the average wavelength is 1271 nm, with a usable band of +/- 6.5 nm). Channel 6 and channel 7 (1370 nm and 1390 nm) are normally not usable because of the OH peak in the fiber, which causes high attenuation at these wavelengths.

D

Damping in the building

Depending on the distribution structure in the building, the damping can vary. The dimensioning of the return path amplification must therefore be carried out in dependence on the existing or planned distribution network.

Descrambler

The U 194 module processes up to 4 transport streams (4 x IP > 4 x IP) and offers Multi-Service Descrambling

"Direct Digital"

Direct Digital contains the complete digital modulation of the output signal. In addition, this FPGA-based technology offers outstanding signal parameters, independent of temperature and aging. The modulators are implemented software-based, which brings a number of advantages. The standard of output signals can be changed by programming the modules via a web interface. No adaptation of hardware is necessary.

DiSEqC

Digital Satellite Equipment Control: digital control signal technology for satellite reception systems

Diameter SAT antenna

Select an antenna with a sufficiently large diameter that offers sufficient system reserves. An antenna with e.g. 100 cm diameter offers a significantly higher reception performance compared to an antenna with 80 cm diameter - i.e. more system reserve, e.g. in bad weather.

DVB

Digital Video Broadcasting: standardized procedure for the transmission of digital content (e.g. television, radio, multi-channel sound)

DVB-C

Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable: digital cable television

DVB-S

Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite: digital satellite television

DVB-T

Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial: digital terrestrial television

E

ecoswitch

During the development of the AMS ECOswitch multiswitches, particular attention was paid to requirements regarding the conservation of resources. For example, the active components are equipped with energy-saving switch-mode power supply units that only consume 0.5 W in stand-by mode. The production is RoHS compliant.

EDS

A configuration with LED and pushbuttons. Automatic control of output level (AGC), gain/attenuation/equalizer settings and other parameters can be easily controlled from a keypad.

EPG

Electronic Program Guide: user interface and electronic program guide in set top boxes and TV sets

F

Features / licenses U 100 series

All essential functions are already included in the ASTRO U 100 series. Also features like z. e.g. UDP/RTP and FEC on the IP receiving side as well as programmable timesharing of output channels and information stickers for PAL channels are included. An additional license is only required for the transport stream analyzer.

FEC

Forward Error Correction: Detection and correction of transmission errors by using redundancy information added to the signal

FTA

Free To Air: unencrypted TV offer, private or public

FTTH / FTTB / FTTC

Different network structures, such as Fibre to the Home, Fibre to the Building or Fibre to the Curb

G

GPON

The Gigabit Passive Optical Network comprises OLT and ONUs connected via a passive optical distribution network.

H

HDTV

High Definition Television: 5x higher resolution at an aspect ratio of 16:9 compared to the conventional TV signal (SDTV)

HUB

A HUB is a device in which active transmission components are installed on the provider side (e.g. optical amplifiers, data transmission components, etc.).

I

IP interfaces for signal converters

The ASTRO U 100 series offers different physical interfaces to map all possible redundancy mechanisms and to configure different reception paths. To reduce the influence of a lost input signal to a minimum, redundant data interfaces are essential. For different concepts of remote maintenance it is also necessary to provide redundant management systems. The use of these interfaces is optional. The disadvantage of a somewhat more time-consuming cabling effort can be neglected compared to the advantages of high signal stability and different remote maintenance options.

IP Streamer

You want to convert DVB-S2, DVB-C, DVB-T or DVB-T2 input signals to IP? The U Series streamers offer up to 4 or 8 IP multicast groups, so you can generate up to 12 or 24 streams per 19 inch height unit. In addition, the received transponders can be broken down into individual services and these can be played out as SPTS.

Irradiation resistance

Since the introduction of mobile radio, radio frequencies up to 700 MHz have been used. This frequency range is thus used for both cable television and mobile communications. Because of the shared use of frequencies, LTE mobile radio can interfere with cable television programmes.
In addition to the well-known consequences for terrestrially broadcast TV programmes and for many operators of radio microphones, the reduction in the frequency range used for mobile telephony also has consequences for cable network operators. The cable networks must be protected against external radiation. Many operators are already doing this by restricting the coax lines to be used and justifiably demanding the use of Class A+ lines. However, manufacturers of antenna receptacles are also faced with increased requirements regarding electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). In the area of subscriber installation, the signal levels are small and therefore particularly sensitive to interference. A high degree of shielding for antenna outlet receptacles therefore means greater protection against radiation from LTE signals.

J

Junction boxes

The GUT junction boxes are available in different variants as spur or through boxes and are suitable for all distribution structures - whether tree structure or star distribution. In addition to the classic equipment with TV, radio and SAT outputs, types with data sockets for multimedia applications are also available. The programmable boxes of the GUT PD series are suitable for Unicable applications. Many socket types offer improved irradiation resistance against LTE interference signals and are therefore future-proof.

Junction boxes and distributors

A complete range of distributors and branchers (symmetrical and asymmetrical) allows almost any conceivable distribution solution. All types of the HFT and HFD series meet the high requirements of class A and are of the highest standard.

L

LCN

Logic Channel Numbering: automatic sorting of programme positions

Line network for amplifiers

The connection attenuation to the route network outside the building and its return path dimensioning also play an important role in the choice of return path amplification. You should therefore always select an amplifier in consultation with the operator of the route network.

Link Performance

Link performance is the transmission power for a predefined optical or electrical transmission path at a reference system load. To determine the link performance for TV broadcasting, performance values are usually determined for analog TV transmission between head-end and the output signal on the tested device for a predefined transmission path. The performance values are CNR (carrier noise ratio), CSO (composite second order beats) and CTB (composite triple order beats). The link performance strongly depends on the quality of the devices used, the number of transmission channels and the line length to the devices. Standard channel distributions used for measurement are e.g. Cenelec 42 for Europe, PAL84 for Asia or the American NTSC 77. For digital TV other performance values are interesting, such as BER (Bit Error Rate) and MER (Modulation Error Rate).

LNB

Low Noise Block Converter: Receiving head located at the focal point of a parabolic reflector

Locally or remotely fed amplifiers

Often 4 locally fed amplifiers are used in the mains level, which are operated with a 230 V AC voltage. In this case a separate power supply with fuse protection of the power supply lines must be provided. If this is not the case, remote-fed devices can also be used.

M

Management Controller

The U 100-C controller, in conjunction with the web browser-based configuration, makes the management of your IP headend via an IP address a convenient matter.

MCPC

Multi Channel per Carrier: Combining SCPC by means of multiplexing in one transponder

MPEG

Moving Pictures Expert Group: Group of experts dealing with the standardization of video and audio compression. Naming for many compression methods (MPEG-2, MPEG-4).

Multiswitch

ECOswitch multiswitches offer an excellent price/performance ratio and are available with 4, 8 or 16 SAT inputs plus terrestrial input. These units are available with 6, 8, 12 or 16 receiver outputs.

N

NIT

Network Information Table: Table with information about multiplexes and transport streams in a network (e.g. name and type of transmission system).

Noise figure

The noise figure indicates by how much smaller the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of an active component (e.g. an amplifier) is in relation to the signal-to-noise ratio at the input.

O

OLT

Optical Line Termination is the installation in the central area that provides one or more ports for connecting the end user devices to the PON network.

ONU

The Optical Network Unit contains the technical equipment at the end user's premises. This provides an optical connection to the OLT and one or more data interfaces to the home network. VoIP, POTS and Wireless can also be included, depending on the ONU device.

Operating level

Which operating level is required for a distribution system depends on the distribution attenuation of the downstream network within a building. The minimum level required at the junction boxes also plays a decisive role.
Fire protection class: Please note that since July 1, 2017, all coaxial cables permanently and permanently installed in buildings must be tested for fire behaviour according to EN 50575:2014 + A1:2016. Classification and appropriate marking must be available. This measure is intended to create an increase in the safety standard in buildings and to establish a framework for the comparability of construction products. All ASTRO house installation cables are certified and marked according to Eu-BauPVO.

Optical fibers

Pre-assembled optical fibers with FC/PC connectors for bridging very long distances

Optical SAT IF distribution

The principle of SAT distribution via optical fiber is relatively simple: a special optical LNB converts the signal received directly from the parabolic reflector into light waves. The distribution of this optical signal is then achieved via pre-terminated optical fibers, which are available in different lengths. The optical signal can then be further distributed via optical splitters, maintaining a high signal level even over long distances. At the end of the transmission chain, the optical signal is converted back into a SAT IF signal via opto-electric converters.

Optical LNB

The LNB combines four SAT IF bands into one optical output signal.

Optical distribution material

In order to implement optical distribution networks, you need splitters, distributors and branch circuits. ASTRO offers a wide range of products with different numbers of outputs.

Optical accessories

Optical attenuators with different attenuation values

Optical Ethernet

Another way of transmitting TV and data signals via optical fibres is to transmit the output signal of an optical headend first to an optical transmitter and from there to a "Point Of Presence" (POP), where the signal is processed using an optical amplifier and optical splitter. An incoming data signal - received from an IP network via an access switch - can then be transmitted together with the optical signal to the end users via a two-cable solution. Alternatively, both signals can be combined via WDM and transmitted to the end user via one cable (see figure below).

Optoelectric converter

For the direct connection of a SAT receiver or a multiswitch, we offer opto or electric converters in our range. Of course in the usual ASTRO quality.

OSD

On-screen display: Additional information on the screen (e.g. programming data or setting menus)

Output channel filter

Every modulator causes broadband noise, regardless of the quality of the hardware and software design. Especially when a large number of output channels are to be combined, broadband noise accumulates at the output of the combiner. To reduce the noise before combining, a pluggable output channel filter can be installed in the signal converter. This leads to a significant improvement of the S/N value at the output of the combiner. The ASTRO modulators have a separate signal path to route the signal through the output channel filter. This means that the modulator stays fully frequency agile.

P

Parabolic reflectors

The premium offset parabolic reflectors of the ASP series have an excellent price/performance ratio and very good test results. They are therefore ideally suited for use in high-quality satellite reception systems. The cost-effective offset parabolic reflectors of the AST series are suitable for the price-conscious end user.

Passage sockets (distribution)

Pass-through sockets offer the possibility of cascading. If a feed-through socket is used to terminate a line, it must be provided with a terminating resistor.

PAT

Program Association Table: List of all available programs in a transport stream (each of these programs is assigned a PID for its Program Map Table (PMT))

PCR

Program Clock Reference: allows each decoder to be synchronized to the received television signal (a PCR is transmitted at least once every 100 ms)

PID

Packet Identifier: Each table or elementary stream in a transport stream is identified by a 13-bit PID

PMT

Program Map Table: Table with information about programs

PPV

Pay-Per-View: Form of billing for pay television in the individual viewing procedure

PSIP

Program and System Information Protocol: defines virtual channels and their contents as well as the electronic program guide with titles

PON

Passive optical network. This refers to the fiber and splitter installation between the HUB and the subscriber. PON networks do not require the installation of active components on site. These networks can also be created with cascaded splitters to bring the output signal of the splitters close to the end user.

Power Supply Units

See LNB: each ACX series power supply unit is tailored to the specific needs of the user and the ASP and AST parabolic antennas offered.

Pre-amplification

The required gain depends on the signal level of the house transfer point (HÜP). The operating level of the system must also be taken into account.

PtP

This abbreviation is often used for the term "Point-to-Point Optical Ethernet Network". For the distribution of CATV signals, the signal is normally distributed to each node. For Internet traffic, the second fiber (or one fiber if there is a merge with the CATV signal via WDM) is connected directly to the Access Switch Port in the HUB.

Q

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation: a modulation technique in communications engineering that combines amplitude modulation and phase modulation

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying: digital modulation method in communications engineering; with QPSK, two bits per symbol can be transmitted.

R

Remote or locally supplied power boosters

Often locally fed amplifiers are used in the network level 4, which are operated with a 230 V AC voltage. In this case a separate power supply with fuse protection of the power supply lines must be provided. If this is not the case, remote-fed devices can also be used.

RTP and FEC

The RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) is an important prerequisite for evaluating the quality of the connection between signal source and receiver. Each transmitted Ethernet frame receives an incremented number corresponding to the RTP. This enables the receiver to detect missing or wrongly arranged frames. A packet loss is detected but not repaired. FEC (Forward Error Correction) is required to compensate for the packet loss. The FEC merges incoming Ethernet frames into a matrix and calculates column and row totals. The size of the matrix can be defined via the web interface and is decisive for the additional overhead of the FEC packets. The "weakest" FEC can repair up to 5 missing or damaged frames and produces an overhead of 11% including RTP. The RTP is required for the setup of an FEC; both belong together. In ASTRO IP receivers and transmitters, RTP and FEC are included without additional license costs.

Return path amplifier

The following selection criteria are essential for a return path amplifier: Attenuation in the building: Depending on the distribution structure in the building the attenuation can vary. The dimensioning of the return path amplification must therefore be carried out in dependence of the existing or planned distribution network. Route network: The connection attenuation to the route network outside the building and its return path dimensioning also play an important role in the selection of the return path amplification. You should therefore always select an amplifier in consultation with the operator of the route network.

S

Shielding capacity

When selecting the cables, pay attention to the cable attenuation and the shielding dimension. The cable attenuation determines how far the satellite signal can be propagated without an additional amplifier when the signal level is still sufficient. Another important criterion is the shielding capacity. It determines how strongly the signal is affected by external interference, but also at what level the signal leaves the cable. A triple-shielded cable such as the CSA 9511 A offers optimum parameters for attenuation and shielding effectiveness.

Single cable solution

For single cable solutions ASTRO offers Stacker/Destacker and Unicable Multiswitches for the combination of SAT IF signals on one line. The AMS SAT IP Router offers the possibility to distribute SAT IF signals via (W)LAN.

Single boxes (distribution)

Single sockets form the termination of a spur line. This can be led from a supply unit (LNB), a branch or a multi-switch to the box.

Single mode fiber

The optical signal in HFC networks is an analog modulated signal. This means that the laser is modulated at the input of the transmitter depending on the RF signal, which can consist of analog PAL or digital QAM signals. Since these signals are much more sensitive to interference than digital signals in IP networks, the demands on the optical fiber are increasing. The most important parameter is the fiber dispersion, which is a measure of signal degradation at flow. For physical reasons, single mode fibers have much better values in terms of dispersion and are therefore suitable for bridging large distances with high bandwidth.

SCPC

Single Channel Per Carrier: satellite transponder with only one service (TV, radio) per signal carrier

SCR

Satellite Channel Router: European single cable standard

SDTV

Standard Definition Television: conventional TV signal with low picture resolution in PAL or NTSC standards

Selective stand-by function for multi-switches for 2 satellites

Usually a 9-position multiswitch must supply two LNBs. If all connected subscriber devices are switched off, the device goes into stand-by to save energy. If a receiver is now switched on, only the LNB from whose satellite position the signal is required is supplied with power. This continues until one of the receivers requests a signal which is received from the second position. Only then is the second LNB switched on. With this feature an optimized power consumption can be achieved.

Service Drop Function

With the service drop function, unwanted programs can be filtered out.

Signal-to-noise ratio

The signal-to-noise ratio is the ratio of useful signal power to noise power (unit: dB).

Signal converter with integrated IP frontend

Each signal converter of the U 100 series can be used in the U 100-230 and U 100-48 base units. They can be combined without restrictions. It only has to be considered that each signal converter must be used with an individual backplane. The backplane is part of the scope of delivery of all signal converters. You need COFDM, PAL / NTSC, QAM or FM output signals? The U-Series offers you the complete bandwidth. And each module has its own IP frontend.

SNMP Monitoring

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a standard method for monitoring devices in communication technology. Each element (such as a Fibre Node) sends a so-called Managed Information Base (MIB), which contains a description of alarm and configuration parameters. The network manager can access the device via the SNMP protocol to obtain the desired information. The MIB must therefore be known to the manager before he reads information or sets configuration parameters.

Splitters and electric diverter

A complete range of splitters and electric diverter (symmetrical and asymmetrical) allows almost any conceivable distribution solution. All types of the HFT and HFD series meet the high requirements of class A and satisfy the demands placed on high-quality distribution material.

Stacker / De-Stacker (SEV twin plus D)

These devices stack the required frequency bands on top of each other, feed them via a supply line to the terminal device and are separated again directly in front of the terminal device, so that two separate signals are available. Important: The antenna socket must be removed, as the high frequencies used cannot pass through the socket.

STB

Set Top Box: Add-on device for extending the use of television sets

T

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access is a method that grants an ONU a certain time to transmit upstream data. During this time no other ONU connected to the same OLT port can transmit. Data collisions can thus be avoided.

TDT

Time and Date Table: contains the Universal Time (UTC) encoded as MJD (Modified Julian Date)

Terrestrial antennas

They are used to feed additional programmes into a reception system, e.g. FM radio programmes and DVB-T2 programmes. ASTRO offers different solutions for these applications.

Transmission range amplifier

To make broadband networks future-proof, only components with a transmission range of at least 862 MHz, but preferably 1006 MHz, should be used. ASTRO offers almost exclusively components with a transmission range of 1006 MHz.

TS

Transport Stream: Standard format for transmission and storage of video, audio and SIPS data

U

Updates / ASTRO Firmware U-Technik

Updates are available via the ASTRO Firmware Server. You can download them to a local computer and then start the update. The update file can also be stored in the Management Module U 100-C. The new firmware is then immediately time-controlled transferred to the module. A third possibility is the download via the FTP server directly to the module. Standard firmware updates are free of charge. These include bug fixes or general improvements to the firmware.

Unicable multiswitch SEV 103

To use this device, the twin receiver must support the Unicable protocol. At the multiswitch, the supply line to the antenna socket is interrupted and the SEV 103 is interconnected - connected to two multiswitch outputs on the input side. Two of the usable user band IDs are then assigned to the Twin Receiver and the subscriber can use both tuners.

USB

Universal Serial Bus: Standard for connecting additional devices (e.g. mouse, keyboard) to a PC

W

WDM Pass-Through

Fibre nodes with WDM path through can be used with a wavelength of 1550 nm for CATV reception and for optical data bypass. In front of the PIN diode for CATV reception is a wavelength division filter that separates the 1550 nm wavelength from the other wavelengths. The other wavelengths are passed to a separate optical adapter. This technology is often used to transmit multiplexed signals at 1500 nm and transparent data at 1490 nm/1310 nm (optical Ethernet or GPON/EPON).

In the interests of clarity and legibility, some explanations have been simplified in some cases.
The contents of this FAQ / Glossary catalogue were created by ASTRO Kommunikationssysteme GmbH to the best of their knowledge.
The technical information has been checked and corresponds to the current status of regulations, standards and measuring methods at the time of publication.

Technical changes and errors excepted.
The contents published in this FAQ / Glossary are protected. Duplications and other uses of this overview are not permitted without prior consent of ASTRO.

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